So far in our exploration of how the mind grows We talked about a lot of philosophies, models and ways of looking at things. But here's a surprisingly useful tool for understanding developmental psychology … The Breakfast Club. Incidentally, this video will include information about the plot of "The Breakfast Club". That classic film from the 1980s about a group of teenagers They were detained for punishment on the fateful Sabbath morning. Do they still apply punishment on Saturday? It wasn't in my school. It was crazy, that the children come on weekends to receive punishment. There is a Tramp, an athlete, a fool, an erratic princess. At first, they are all hostile and reserved with each other.
Let's face the truth, American high schools are a bastion of such things. But as the day progressed, they started speaking openly and enjoying dancing. At some point, each of them collapses and reveals something very important About adolescence, A conflict between the need for excellence and the need for belonging. All these youngsters feel intense pressure to keep their image in their respective group Partly because there is some sense of security of belonging to the group. Even if that group was harassed by another group. Thus, they wear accompanying diamond earrings Military boots, sports jackets and sunglasses are acting as their roles dictate But the problem is that none of these boys is satisfied with their foreign identity.
They are all stuck in the traditional teens struggle Who was a German psychoanalyst Eric Erickson Yes, his name is Eric Erickson By calling the crisis between identity and confusing role. In other words, their newly formed identities Contradict others' expectations of the roles they have to play. Hence the confusion. In the past weeks, we talked about childhood As a critical period of growth, learning and change, it certainly is. But anyone who has seen a movie by John Hughes knows that growth is more than that. And I have news for you From adolescence to maturity until old age Your personal psychological development never stops. Start! You have to get used to it. Today, most psychologists view psychological development As a lifelong process From childhood to adolescence to adulthood to old age. People are constantly changing. Piaget also provided us with a useful framework for thinking about early development Other researchers have given us insights into how we evolved In the rest of our lives, especially Eric Erickson. Like many others, I think Erickson That our characters evolve in a predetermined order This was defined in an eight-stage model.
And every stage, from childhood to old age Knowledge of her dominant problem, or crisis. If you're going to panic when you know you're going to face crises constantly At all stages of your life, we can call them "problems." Since we already talked about the early development of the child I'll move on to the important adolescence. But you can consult this table to find out the rest. Eriksson defined the teenage years, or the fifth stage It begins in adolescence, and extends to some until the beginning of the twenties. He also filmed the film "The Breakfast Club" artistically Its main crisis is confronting identity with a cluttered role.
The teenage years are characterized by a lot of physical changes In the body, brain and sex hormones in addition to increased independence In addition, the need to belong to something. This often troubling period is the time when teenagers retest their identities To learn how to integrate with those around them, excellence Often try several roles. They may experience punk rock, hockey, theater, or old philosophy.
They may look normal in their second year, and then their hair becomes green in the first year. We hope that the person comes out of this stage and has a unified sense of self But this stage can be confused I'm sure everyone who sees this video knows it. But of course, this is not the last crisis … sorry, I mean "problem." Eriksson thought that the youth period In his view, it began in the early 1920s, and ended in the early 1940s It was characterized by another conflict, between intimacy and isolation. At this point in life, most of us are beginning to live intimate relationships Be it with a permanent granule, or by establishing multiple relationships. A good relationship here may lead to feelings of security, attention and commitment Lack of intimacy may lead to unity, isolation and depression. Recently, a number of psychologists began The early years of this stage are referred to as “emerging puberty” Some say it deserves a special rating Away from adolescence or full maturity.
At least, in contemporary Western civilizations, many are at this stage They feel stuck in an intermediate stage. They know they've finished secondary things But they are still connected to their families. In 2011, the US Census showed that 65 percent of people under the age of 24 They still live with their parents. We remind you that the economic factor may affect development. For Ericsson, after youth, the middle age begins from the 1940s to the 1960s. This phase, the seventh stage, is characterized by a tendency towards creativity or stagnation. At this stage, the majority have jobs and have established a career and possibly their own families. We understand the broader picture of life better and contribute to society Through productive activities or contribution, such as work and community development Raising children, paying taxes, and all that adults do. Lack of these things, boredom in general or lack of purpose It may make people in the seventh stage feel stagnant and unproductive Hence the known and potentially very painful phase of the mid-life crisis. Finally, in the end, comes the eighth stage.
In the late adulthood, from 65 years and over we often suffer from integrity versus despair. Maybe you spent some time with a grandfather or another elderly person Their reputation is reflecting on their lives and achievements They talk about their memories when the milk shake was cheap. If their feelings are generally positive They have developed a sense of integrity and perfection That means they are fully satisfied with their lives.
On the contrary, look at life and guilt and regret This disappointment of the past may spoil the aging period Depressed and feeling hopeless. Again, the Eriksson model is not an ideal contemporary model But he gave us an early idea of contradiction and growth throughout our lives. His ideas were developed, and challenged by other scientists But as with Piaget, it will remain a key symbol known in Western psychology. So Eriksson talked about psychosocial development But what happens to our bodies and brains after we reach adulthood Are we getting older little by little? It is difficult to generalize these stages of puberty Because we are not in transition every year as we were in our childhood Adult lifestyles can vary greatly.
Seventy-year-old Mick Jagger He still lives a more youthful life than many in his 20s. But despite all our differences But many stages of our lives have some similarities Physically, cognitively and socially. At first, there are physical changes. Slow decrease in response time, muscle strength and strength The work of the heart and the production of sex hormone Unity of the senses, such as hearing and vision. For most of us, bifocal glasses are necessary, and perhaps earphones too. But this does not mean that a strong man in his 50s cannot overcome a lazy young man in his 20s In the hundred-meter race Of course, the extent to which you take care of your body at first is of great importance. However, you cannot stop or reverse the aging process. The good news is that our intelligence remains constant throughout adulthood. Although some may feel that their intelligence is confused with age Research has found, however, that when one type of intelligence declines in adolescence Another species continues to grow throughout your life.
Psychologist Raymond Cattell and John Horne They were the first to develop the principle of liquid and crystallized intelligence They said that intelligence itself consists of multiple abilities that work together. Liquid intelligence deals with your ability to solve problems Away from your personal experiences and education. They are usually linked to thinking quickly and simply. Like thinking about the logic of a puzzle Instead of remembering how to know the cosine of an angle.
So, relatively inexperienced teenagers show a high percentage of liquid intelligence. But the problem is that it peaks in adolescence Then its slow decline begins in the 1930s. That is, I am ordering it now. But crystallized intelligence as indicated by the definition Knowledge based on facts and strengthened by experience and prior learning. This kind of empirical intelligence grows stronger with age Because we continue to absorb new knowledge and concepts That's what makes Grandma skilled at solving crosswords. Liquid and crystallized intelligence are equally important They usually work together to accomplish the task of thinking. So, in the end, part of our thinking becomes bad with age But some continue to improve. Of course, there are exceptions. Although most of the 90s retain their intelligence However, some people may experience significant brain cell loss They suffer serious consequences.
Brain tumor, simple strokes or drinking alcohol constantly These can gradually cause brain damage and increase the risk of dementia. Dementia is not a specific disease, but a set of symptoms Associated with poor thinking, memory loss and confusion And possible changes in personality It becomes so severe that it disables normal functions. Alzheimer's disease is a form of progressive dementia that cannot be cured. First the memory recedes, then think logically In the end, basic physiological functions Core brain neurons continue to collapse. It affects about three percent of the world's population before the age of 75 But then, the rate doubles every five years. So, I repeat, not all dementia is linked to Alzheimer's, nor is it as severe. Although the risk of dementia increases in older ages But remember, it's not part of normal aging. Some changes in memory are normal, but most memories are supposed to remain intact. In the end, we still have a lot to learn about the aging process.
With increasing age We may have to change what we think we know about the effects on human psychology. In some ways, you might say that this is the next psychology front. When we know what that looks like Staff at The Breakfast Club may be ready for reunion It is a good idea to make a film about it. Today, you have learned with your sophisticated minds Erikson's eight stages of progressive psychosocial development And its accompanying problems. You also learned about the apparent adulthood And differences between liquid and crystallized intelligence Some facts about dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Thank you for watching this episode of Crash Course Especially for our Subbable subscribers, who make this possible.
To learn how you can contribute, visit the Subbable.com/CrashCourse page. This episode was written by Kathleen Yale and edited by Blake de Pastino Our consultant is Dr. Ranjit Bhagwat. Our director and editor is Nicholas Jenkins The script supervisor is Michael Aranda, who is also the sound designer The graphics team is Thought Café.